Isaiah 62:8-9 tirosh grapes, not alcohol, in the holy places!

Certainly tirosh in Isaiah 62:8-9 cannot be alcohol because of the penalty for drinking any alcoholic yayin in the holy places (Lev. 10:9-11).

Isaiah 62:8-9 does NOT contain the word wine (yayin) in the original Hebrew text, despite some of the English versions today (e.g. NLT, CEV) very needlessly adding “wine” into verse 9.* Verse 8 merely says תִּירוֹשׁ tirosh (grape) which is the same word tirosh as in Isa. 65:8 where the tirosh (grape) is found in the cluster! The Wycliffe translation says “grape” for tirosh in Isa. 65:8 (and the CEV says “grape” for tirosh for Isa. 62:8).

The ASV usually translates tirosh as “new wine” (or “vintage” in Mic. 6:15). The Temperance Bible Commentary (Appendix A) renders tirosh consistently as “vine-fruit” in all 38 instances, such as Isa. 62:8 and Isa. 65:8. “And the sons of the stranger shall not drink thy vine-fruit, for which thou hast laboured” (Isa. 62:8). “As the vine-fruit is in a (single) cluster” (Isa 65:8).

Tirosh originally meant solid grapes, as noted by the Babylonian Talmud. “During the time of the Mishna, tirosh meant sweet fruits; the term included grapes but not wine.”
(Yoma 76b, Babylonian Talmud (c. 450 – 550 AD), English translation by William Davidson)

Isa. 62:8 Jehovah hath sworn by his right hand, and by the arm of his strength, Surely I will no more give thy grain to be food for thine enemies; and foreigners shall not drink thy {tirosh} new wine, for which thou hast labored:

Isa. 62:9 but they that have garnered it shall eat it, and praise Jehovah; and they that have gathered it shall drink it in the courts of my sanctuary.

(ASV)

Lev. 10:8 Then the LORD spoke to Aaron, saying:

Lev. 10:9 “Do not drink {yayin} wine or {shekhar} intoxicating drink, you, nor your sons with you, when you go into the tabernacle of meeting, lest you die. It shall be a statute forever throughout your generations,

Lev. 10:10 that you may distinguish between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean,

Lev. 10:11 and that you may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD has spoken to them by the hand of Moses.”

(NKJV)

* P.S. If somebody today needlessly inserts the word “wine” into Isa. 62:9, then this would confuse readers today who are not aware that juice was ready to be called {yayin} wine in Isa. 16:10 even at the very time when it was squeezed from grapes.

In Isa. 62:8, the Greek Septuagint translated tirosh as oinos, just as it usually did elsewhere (e.g. Judg. 9:13; Prov. 3:10; Zech. 9:17). These verses show that:

  • Solid grapes are on the grapevine (Judg. 9:10; tirosh translated as oinos).
  • Solid grapes overflow the press (Prov. 3:10; tirosh translated as oinos).
  • Solid grapes are eaten by young girls (Zech 9:17; tirosh translated as oinos).

Churches need to be safe from alcohol says Anglican bishop

Bishop Al Stewart [Bishop of Woolongong speaking at the Anglican Synod] suggested church grounds should be safe places. “I definitely want to see Aussie men converted, I’ve dedicated my life to that. But our churches need to be safe places. And if you don’t know what I mean about a safe place in terms of alcohol, then I think you’ve lived a very sheltered life.”

(Parishes to decide on drinking, Joshua Maule, 28 October 2009, Sydney Anglicans. Al Stewart was bishop of Woolongong)

However, another minister at the same Synod meeting even dared to boast about an “international beer tasting event he ran at his church [in Miranda] last Friday night” What?! This resembles the unscrupulous politicians who buy cheep votes by shouting beer. This explains why Aussie men today resembling Arthur Stace do not get soundly converted like him. Arthur was sick of his old life – so he was looking for what was DIFFERENT – not more of the same old booze – which God denounces, calling it the cruel venom of cobras (Deut. 32:33)!

‘Well look at them and look at us. I’m having a go at what they have got.’

—Arthur Stace “Mr. Eternity”

Pure and undefiled religion before God and the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their trouble, and to keep oneself unspotted from the world.” (James 1:27)

Russian Orthodox Church Slams Proposal to Continue Selling Beer at Stadiums

“The Russian Orthodox Church has criticized a proposed plan for Russia to relax its ban on beer sales at sports stadiums after a regional official asked President Vladimir Putin to continue sales after the World Cup.

Russia relaxed its 2005 ban on alcohol sales at stadiums for the football tournament this summer in line with football governing body FIFA’s regulations. Beer sales in the 11 host cities rose by up to 39 percent during the tournament.

The head of Russia’s Muslim-majority Tatarstan republic, Rustam Minnikhanov, asked Putin last week to keep the relaxed policy in place for future football tournaments.

‘I’m embarrassed, as a Muslim, to be speaking about beer, but it’s out of concern for our Orthodox brothers,’ he was cited by the Kremlin’s website as saying.

But Valery Doronkin, the head of the Orthodox Church’s anti-alcoholism coordinating center, told the state-run RIA Novosti news agency Monday that the Church is ‘categorically opposed to such a proposal.’

‘We are against drinking, against drinking alcohol in public places, and against the free sale of alcohol,’ said Doronkin …

Doronkin cited the high numbers of alcohol-related deaths in Russia, which ranks as the world’s fifth-most alcohol dependent country, in pressing for restrictions.

‘Alcohol … leads to the deaths of adults, children run over by drunk drivers, beaten wives and children and the breakdown of families,’ he said.

‘[To be] Orthodox doesn’t mean [to be] drunk; drunkenness is considered a terrible sin,’ he added.”

(“Russian Orthodox Church Slams Proposal to Continue Selling Beer at Stadiums”, The Moscow Times, 24 July 2018.)

Total abstinence, a consistent core principle of both Orthodox and Protestant rehab programs, is now being promoted by some Orthodox clerics for the church as a whole.”

(Mark R. Elliott, “Church-Based Alcohol Rehabilitation in the Former Soviet Union”, East-West Church and Ministry Report 7 July 2013.)

“there are more than 500 active anti-alcoholism projects in Russia today under the auspices of the Russian Orthodox Church.”

(“Russian Church has organized more than 500 anti-alcoholism projects”, Orthodox Christianity, 2 May 2017.)

Fact check: where does Old Testament say any wine required at Passover?

R. C. Sproul made a very questionable claim: “…everybody knows that the Old Testament feast of the Passover, that Jesus celebrated in the upper room, called for the use of real wine – by Devine sanction.” (R. C. Sproul, The Wedding Feast, sermon at St Andrew’s Chapel, Sanford, Florida, 9 Jun. 2002.)

I found where the Old Testament talks about the Passover: wine is not mentioned!

I found no Old Testament verse that commands {yayin} “wine,” nor even mentions the fruit of the vine, for the Passover seder meal.

Ex. 12; Ex. 13:3-10; Ex. 23:15, 18; Ex. 34:18, 25; Lev. 23:5-8; Num. 9:1-14; Num. 28:16-25; Num. 33:3; Deut. 16:1-8; Josh. 5:10-11; 2 Kin. 23:9, 21-23; 2 Chr. 8:13; 2 Chr. 30; 2 Chr. 35:1-19; Ezra 6:19-22; Ezek. 45:21-24.

Sproul said “real wine” when he meant alcoholic wine exclusively, forgetting the unfermented wine of Isaiah 16:10 is equally real {yayin} “wine” – by God’s own word. (This verse is about wine, but not about the Passover.)

Also the Greek New Testament itself never says {oinos} “wine” referring to the Last Supper, but only refers to the cup and the “fruit of the vine.”

Matt. 26:2, 17-19; Mark 14:1, 12, 14, 16; Luke 2:41; Luke 22:1, 7-8; Luke 22:11, 13, 15; John 2:13, 23; John 6:4; John 11:55; John 12:1; John 13:1; John 18:28, 39; John 19:14; Acts 12:3-4; Acts 20:6; 1 Cor. 5:7-8; Heb. 11:28.

Nothing wrong with grape juice!

The danger of former alcoholics relapsing is one of multiple reasons for various church denominations to stipulate the observance the Lord’s Supper with only unfermented wine.

Paul rebukes some Corinthians for what? (1 Cor. 11:21)

Jeremiah 31:25 (Greek version) contrasts methuo with being hungry (peinao). 1 Cor. 11:21 likewise contrasts methuo with being hungry (peinao). I understand methuo in 1 Cor. 11:21 the same way as in Jeremiah 31:25. This is how several translations have rendered 1 Cor. 11:21, without any intoxication (for methuo) in this specific passage because in this context it is contrasted with being hungry:

“For, in eating it, every one takes first his own supper; and one, indeed, is hungry, and another is filled.” (Living Oracles New Testament)
“for in eating every one strives to take his own supper first, and while one is hungry, another is surfeited.” (Mace)
“for every one at eating taketh first his own supper, so one indeed is hungry and another is plentifully fed.” (Charles Thomson version)
“each one for the own supper takes before in the to eat, and one indeed is hungry, one but is filled.” (Emphatic Diaglott – Benjamin Wilson)

Accidental fermentation of new wine prevented by new clean wineskins (Matthew 9:17)

“Nor do they put new wine into old wineskins, or else the wineskins break, the wine is spilled, and the wineskins are ruined. But they put new wine into new wineskins, and both are preserved.” (Matthew 9:17)

“The common explanation of this custom is erroneous and insufficient (vis., that new skin-bags were used in order to resist the expanding pressure of the carbon dioxide (CO₂) gas made by fermentation). For it cannot have been customary to put wine during fermentation into any kind of bottles, either new or old, because fermentation, when intentional, was continued on in the wine-vat (Greek, hupoleenion; Latin, lacus); and when, by mistake, fermenting wine was poured into skin-bags drawn tight, the destruction of the bag, no matter how new and strong, would certainly be the result. [See Note on Job 32:19.]”

“For I am full of words;
The spirit within me compels me.
Indeed my belly is like wine that has no vent;
It is ready to burst like new wineskins.” (Job 32:18-19)

“The facts stated by [Jesus] the Saviour can only be understood in the light of the efforts used by the ancients to prevent grape-juice from fermenting, by straining the juice in order to free it from much of its glutinous material, and then bottling it with sulphur fumigation; or by boiling the juice, which aborts all incipient fermentation, and then sealing it inside bags or other air-tight containers. Obviously, to make these precautions effective, the wine-bags themselves must have been free from ferment; and there was no other way to ensure the absence of [accidental] fermentation besides using perfectly new skin-bags. If old bags had been used, then some of the decayed albuminous matter adhering to their sides, by the action of air, must have become changed into a leaven or ferment (Hebrew, seor); or, by long wear and heat, thus it began fermenting, would subsequently burst the skin, and be spilled and ‘lost’. But if the wine was poured into bags made of skin never used before, then no tendency for fermentation would be present, and both the wine and the bags would be preserved,—the wine preserved from fermentation, and the bags preserved from bursting. Otherwise these would surely be the results from the expanding pressure of carbon dioxide (CO₂) gas made by fermentation trying to find a vent.”

Temperance Bible-Commentary, p. 265, Matt. 9:17 (The wording is updated to newer English.)

Glossary of Bible words defined in Hebrew & Greek: wines, sobriety, getting drunk

Old Testament words (Hebrew, Aramaic)

Yayin: יַיִן n., juice from grapes, with or without later fermentation. Num. 6:3 distinguishes yayin and fermented yayin. Examples of yayin without fermentation: Isa. 16:10; Jer. 40:10,12; 48:33. Nobody is denying yayin was intoxicating (sometimes anyway). Nobody is denying that “wine is a mocker…” (Prov. 20:1) Indeed, Levitical priests who drank at all in God’s house were even threatened with capital punishment. With clear minds, they could distinguish between the holy and the unholy (Lev. 10:9). Jews have long distinguished between yayin and intoxicating yayin. “The difference between that kind of wine, and … the kind of wine G–d will offer the righteous to drink in the world to come, is that the former is liable to intoxicate (those that drink it), whereas the latter causes pure joy (to those who imbibe it).” – Isaiah HaLevi Horovitz (a Polish rabbi and kabbalist c.1565 – 1630 AD) Word forms: Strong’s H3196. See also yayin and oinos in the Temperance Bible Commentary, Appendix C.

Shekhar: שֵׁכָר n., sweet drink, cider with or without later fermentation. Num. 28:7; Deut. 14:26. Num. 6:3 distinguishes between shekhar and fermented shekhar. Word forms: Strong’s H7941, shekar, sekar, shechar. Luke 1:15 borrowed the Hebrew שֵׁכָר shekhar in Greek as σίκερα sikera, and the Septuagint (usually) has σίκερα too. In Latin, Jerome borrowed the Hebrew shekhar as siceram – e.g. Deut. 14:26; 29:6; Judg. 13:4,7,14 – rather than using terms like ‘ebrietas’ (inebriation) as for some other passages – e.g. Prov. 20:1. Arabic has the related word sakar سَكَر.

Pri Hagafen: פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן n., fruit of the vine, grapes (similar to “fruitful vine” Isa. 32:12; Zech. 8:12). When grape juice is consumed, pri hagafen is said within a Hebrew prayer of thanksgiving to the Creator. In the New Testament, the “fruit of the vine” was at the Last Supper (in Greek: gennematos tes ampelou). I cannot see anywhere in the Old Testament itself any mention of the fruit of the vine (or wine or anything like this) said to be required at the Passover or Feast of Unleavened Things! Hananiah (419 B.C.) said the Law’s exclusion of leavened foods at this weeklong feast would likewise exclude leavened drinks (Hananiah, Elephantine Passover letter). Num. 6:3 distinguishes wine from fermented (leavened) wine.

Enab: עֵנָב n., grapes – either fresh or dried (Num. 6:3). Word forms: Strong’s H6025, enav, enabh.

Tirosh: תִּירוֹשׁ n., grapes – fresh (similar to enab) “You shall sow, but not reap; you shall tread olives, but not anoint yourselves with oil; you shall tread grapes (tirosh), but not drink wine (yayin)” (Mic. 6:15 ESV). Apparently it was unnecessary for Num. 6:3-4 to mention tirosh because it already mentions enab anyway. Certainly tirosh in Isa. 62:8-9 cannot be alcohol – else the penalty would apply for drinking any in the holy places (Lev. 10:9-11). Even those who interpret tirosh as something intoxicating just once in Hos. 4:11 would be unlikely to claim it was always so in all other verses. Word forms: Strong’s H8492, tiros.

Shemar: שֶׁמֶר n., preserved thing. “preserved things” (Isa. 25:6 YLT). Shemar is a rare word. Word forms: Strong’s H8105, shemer, shemarim.

Khamar: חֲמַר (Ezr. 6:9; 7:22), חַמְרָא (Dan. 5:1, 2, 4, 23) n., – juice from grapes, with or without later fermentation. (Khamar ܚܡܪܐ is found in Aramaic vocabulary, and yayin in Hebrew vocabulary. Commentaries also refer to Aramaic as Chaldee or Syriac.) Examples of khamar in Targum Jonathan showing that it is not exclusively alcoholic: וַחֲמַר (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 2:12), חַמְרָא (Jer. 40:10,12). Arabic has the related word khamr خَمْر. Word forms: Strong’s H2562, chamar, hamar, hhamra, hhamer. See also: חֶמֶר Strong’s H2561, chemer, hemer, hhemar (Deut. 32:14).

Ahsis: עָסִיס n., fresh juice (for example fresh juice of pomegranates or other fruits). Joel 3:18; Amos 9:13, Song 8:2. Word forms: Strong’s H6071, asis.

Sobeh: סֹבֶא n., “drink” (Isa. 1:22 YLT). Sobeh is a rare word. Word forms: Strong’s H5435, sobe, sobhe.

Mishra: מִשְׁרָה n., a drink made from leftover macerated grape pulp – soaked in water. It does not simply mean ordinary grape juice. Mishra is a rare word, found in Num. 6:3 “liquor” in KJV. (The same verse also mentions yayin יַיִן – a more common word, both fermented and unfermented.) Word forms: Strong’s H4952, misra, mishrah.

Mesek: מֶסֶךְ n., Ps. 75:8. Word forms: Strong’s H4538, mesekh, misach, mesec, mecek, mesech. See also: Strong’s H4537.

Mimsak: מִמְסָךְ n., Prov. 23:30; Isa. 65:11. Word forms: Strong’s H4469, mamsakh, mamsak, mamcak.

Matstsah: מַצָּה n., something non-fermented, unleavened; a drink or food not affected by any yeast. Example: only unleavened things were allowed for the Passover and Unleavened Feast, and for all of the most holy offerings of the Jews. English translators sometimes say “Feast of Unleavened Bread” but the word לֶחֶם lechem (bread) is not actually in the Hebrew text. So Young’s Literal Translation simply says “feast of unleavened things” (Ex. 23:15, etc.). The meaning of unleavened things applies to the Christian sacrament (1 Cor. 5:7-8). Word forms: Strong’s H4682, massa.

Chometz: חֹמֶץ n., opposite of matstsah; any drink or food after it was affected by yeast so that its sugars have become fermented. Bacteria will then convert any alcohol into acetic acid. Leavened bread (Hos. 7:4) and vinegar (Prov. 10:26) are both called חָמֵץ chametz / חֹמֶץ chometz. (Yeast itself is called שְׂאֹר seor.) During baking, temperatures exceed 60 °C (140 °F) and so the yeast cell dies. Easton’s Bible Dictionary says that ‘in Heb. hamets, properly “ferment.” In Num. 6:3, “vinegar of wine” is more correctly “fermented wine.”’ Num. 6:3 shows the word chometz can be used to describe some types of yayin wine, though certainty not all! Examples of chometz items: leavened bread, alcoholic beer, malt vinegar, alcoholic wine, wine vinegar, alcoholic cider, cider vinegar, rice wine, etc. (The chometz fermentation process is inhibited by high concentrations of sugar, by high temperatures and by low temperatures.) Even though unleavened and leavened breads may both be in peace offerings (Lev. 7:12-13) yet only the unleavened things (Num. 6:17; Lev. 7:12) are applicable for the peace offerings of Nazarites and for peace offerings during the Feast of Unleavened Things (2 Chr. 30:21-22). But the most holy offerings of the Jews used unleavened things exclusively. Word forms: Strong’s H2557, H2558, chomets, hames, hamets.

Nesek: נֶסֶךְ n., poured-offering (Num. 6:17). Examples: water, blood, yayin, shekhar. Word forms: Strong’s H5262, necek, nehsek, naysek. See also: nesak Strong’s H5261.

Achar: אָחַר v., hesitate, to delay from reluctance – as in Gen. 24:56; Ex. 23:29; Eccl. 5:4; Isa. 5:11. In Prov. 23:30, some translations have tarry or linger long. Some look at wine (Prov. 23:31) yet they initially achar (hesitate) to drink it (Prov. 23:30) – being wary of its bad effects (Prov. 23:29). Word forms: Strong’s H309, ahar.

Ashishah: אֲשִׁישָׁה n., raisin cake. 2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Song 2:5; Hos. 3:1. Word forms: Strong’s H809, asisa, eshishah.

New Testament words (Greek)

Oinos: οἶνος n., juice from grapes, with or without later fermentation, like Hebrew yayin. Nobody is disputing that alcoholic wines existed. Do not be drunk (Eph. 5:18). Yet some ancient wines were not even mildly intoxicating. Anybody who wished to avoid all alcoholic wine was able to avoid this type in Biblical times. Wedding of Cana (John 2:1-11); A non-alcoholic type of wine would benefit Timothy’s stomach (1 Tim. 5:23). Septuagint examples of oinos without fermentation: Isa. 16:10; 40:10,12, Jer. 48:33. Even on the cross, Christ refused to accept oinos mixed with a bitter drug (Mark 15:23). Word forms: Strong’s G3631. See also yayin and oinos in the Temperance Bible Commentary, Appendix C. The Greek Septuagint normally translated tirosh as oinos too (e.g. Judg. 9:13; Prov. 3:10; Isa. 62:8; Zech. 9:17).

Oinon neon: οἶνον νέον, new wine. Matt. 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37-38. The Septuagint has οἶνον νέον “new wine” in Isa. 49:26 for Hebrew ahsis, fresh juice.

Oinopotēs: οἰνοπότης n., a drinker of oinos. A false accusation is recorded in Matt. 11:19; Luke 7:34. Christ denied this false accusation, and He also forbids Christians to behave like unbelievers (Matt. 24:48-51; Luke 12:45-46). John and Jesus both preached, saying to repent, because the kingdom of heaven is at hand (Matt. 3:2; 4:17). Word forms: Strong’s G3630. Compare the term hudropoteō ὑδροποτέω in 1 Tim. 5:23 meaning a drinker of water. Oinopotēs is a different word than methusos drunkard as in 1 Cor. 5:11; 6:10.

Paroinos: πάροινος n., to be near to oinos. 1 Tim. 3:3; Tit. 1:7. Church leaders “near the drink” are ignoring this rule, but certainly Christ Himself would not ignore it! Word forms: Strong’s G3943.

Oinophlugia: οἰνοφλυγία n., 1 Pet. 4:3. Word forms: Strong’s G3632.

Methusos: μέθυσος n., drunkard in 1 Cor. 5:11; 6:10. Septuagint: Prov. 23:21; 26:9. Word forms: Strong’s G3183.

Methuo: μεθύω v., to eat/drink to satisfy one’s hunger/thirst, for example by drinking water (Hag. 1:6 in Sept.) or by another beverage. It only sometimes means to be intoxicated. The Greek translation methuo in Genesis 43:34 should be understood in light of Jeremiah 31:25 which contrasts methuo with hunger peinao. In the New Testament, 1 Cor. 11:21 likewise contrasts methuo with hunger peinao. So I would understand methuo in John 2:10 in the same way as Jer. 31:25 and 1 Cor. 11:21 – even though at other times it may indicate an intoxicated person (Rom. 13:13; Gal. 5:21). Word forms: Strong’s G3184, methyo.

Nēphō: νήφω v., to be nephalistic, “to be free from the influence of intoxicants.” (“Sober”, Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words). 1 Thess. 5:6, 8; 2 Tim. 4:5; 1 Pet. 1:13; 4:7; 5:8. In 1 Thess. 5:6, to be getting drunk (present participle) and to be drunk are both contrasted with “to be sober.” Word forms: Strong’s G3525. Nephalism is also mentioned by Josephus, Philo, Xenophon (“nēphalioi” Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 3.12.2; “nēphein” Philo, Drunkenness, 37.151; “nēphontas” Xenophon, Cyropaedia 7.5.)

Nēphaleos: νηφαλέος adj., nephalistic, “of drink, unmixed with wine… sober … of persons” (Liddell and Scott Lexicon). 1 Tim. 3:2, 11; Tit. 2:2. Word forms: Strong’s G3524, nephalios.

Ananēphō: ἀνανήφω v., to sober back up. 2 Tim. 2:26. Word forms: Strong’s G366.

Eknēphō: ἐκνήφω v., to sober up and quit drinking. 1 Cor. 15:34. Septuagint: Gen. 9:24; 1 Sam. 25:37; Joel 1:5. Word forms: Strong’s G1594.

Sikera: σίκερα n., cider; sweet drink, with or without later fermentation. As the angel Gabriel declared, John the Baptist was never to drink any cider (Luke 1:15). Word forms: Strong’s G4608, sikera. The term came from Hebrew shekhar שֵׁכָר in Num. 6:3 about the Nazarites drinking neither cider nor fermented cider.

Gennēmatos tēs ampelou: γενήματος τῆς ἀμπέλου fruit of the vine, like Hebrew pri hagafen. The fruit of the vine was at the Last Supper (Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 22:18) while the term oinos wine is not stated.

Gleukous: γλεύκους n., sweet juice, like Hebrew ahsis translated into Greek as γλυκασμόν (Joel 3:18; Amos 9:13) or like Hebrew yayin (Job 32:19). In Acts 2:13 gleukous is said sarcastically. Josephus used the term gleukos γλεῦκος when grape juice was strained directly after squeezed for the king’s cup (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 2.5.2, referring to Gen. 40:11). Word forms: Strong’s G1098, gleukos. The related term glukus γλυκύς (sweet) is found in Jam. 3:11-12; Rev. 10:9-10.

Oxos: ὄξος n., vinegar, like the Hebrew chometz (Ps. 69:21). Oxos is only intoxicating if mixed with a poisonous drug to make it so. Christ only accepted vinegar oxos when nothing was mixed with it (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29-30). Word forms: Strong’s G3690.

Pharmakeia: φαρμακεία n., (Gal. 5:20) drug. “(Eng., ‘pharmacy,’ etc.) primarily signified ‘the use of medicine, drugs, spells;’ then, ‘poisoning;’ then, ‘sorcery,’ (“Sorcery”, Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words). Word forms: Strong’s G5331. Pharmakos: φάρμακος (Rev. 9:21; 18:23). People are deceived by taking drugs. Pharmakos “an adjective signifying ‘devoted to magical arts,’ is used as a noun, ‘a sorcerer,’ especially one who uses drugs, potions, spells, enchantments…” (“Sorcerer”, Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words). Word forms: Strong’s G5333.

Zumoō: ζυμόω v., to make leavened. Matt. 13:33; Luke 13:21; 1 Cor. 5:6; Gal. 5:9. Consider the parable of leaven secretly hidden within flour (Matt. 13:33; Luke 13:21). This parable’s leaven represents the contamination (hypocrisy, malice, and wickedness) secretly hidden within good flour in the Kingdom of Heaven. Beware how one man’s lawless hypocrisy contaminates many other people (Matt. 16:12; Luke 12:1; 1 Cor. 5:6-8; Gal. 5:9). For example a contaminator professes to be a Christian brother, even though he refuses to sober up (1 Cor. 5:9-11; 15:33-34). Compare the leaven to other parables saying the Kingdom of Heaven includes bad fish or tares. (Conversely, Hag. 2:12-13 means that a little bit of something holy does not “reverse contaminate” to make other things become holy. Yet some commentators have mistaken the leaven of the parable in Matt. 13:33.) Word forms: Strong’s G2220, zymoō.

Zymē: ζύμη n., leaven. Word forms: Strong’s G2219, zume. The Septuagint in Ex. 12:15 has ζύμην for both yeast itself (seor in Hebrew) and ferment (chometz in Hebrew). Before quickly jumping to incorrect conclusions about ἄρτος artos (bread) in 1 Cor. 10:16, remember bread is not always leavened (see bread unleavened ἄρτους ἀζύμους Ex. 29:2 in Septuagint). Twelve times the Gospels and 1 Corinthians refer to the Lord’s ποτήριον “cup” (Matt. 26:27; Mark 14:23; Luke 22:17,20; 1 Cor. 10:16, 21, 25-28). Suppose what if these verses had instead mentioned wine (oinos)? Yet again before quickly jumping to conclusions, we should remember wine (oinos) is not always fermented/leavened (Isa. 16:10 in Septuagint) – but only sometimes.

Azumos: ἄζυμος adj., unleavened. Matt. 26:17; Mark 14:1, 12; Luke 22:1, 7; Acts 12:3; 20:6; 1 Cor. 5:7-8. Word forms: Strong’s G106. The Latin Vulgate borrowed the Greek term as azymos. English translators sometimes say “Feast of Unleavened Bread” but the word ἄρτος artos (bread) is not actually with it in the Greek text, so Young’s Literal Translation simply says “unleavened food” (Luke 22:1, etc.).

Pneuma: πνεῦμα n., spirit (Eph. 5:18). This word had no dual meaning of alcoholic spirits (e.g. rum, vodka) – unlike today’s English term spirit. Rather, the Holy Spirit Himself is like breath. (See John 3:8; 20:22.) Word forms: Strong’s G4151.

Potos: πότος n., any type of party (1 Pet. 4:3). In the Septuagint the word is sometimes used in a good sense (Job 8:11 of water), but sometimes in a bad sense (Prov. 23:30). Word forms: Strong’s G4224. Compare: potamos ποταμός, river. See also in Hebrew vocabulary: mishteh מִשְׁתֶּה.

Asōtia: ἀσωτία n., no salvation. Do not misunderstand the English term “excess” of KJV. All the New Testament references have alcohol in the context – Eph. 5:18; Tit. 1:6; 1 Pet. 4:3. Word forms: Strong’s G810.

Askos: ἀσκός n., Matt. 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37-38. Word forms: Strong’s G779. See also in Hebrew vocabulary: chemeth, nod, nebel.

Sōphronōs: σωφρόνως adv., Tit. 2:12. Word forms: Strong’s G4996.

Sōphroneō: σωφρονέω v., Mark 5:15; Luke 8:35; Rom. 12:3; 2 Cor. 5:13; Tit. 2:6; 1 Pet. 4:7. Word forms: Strong’s G4993. (1 Pet. 4:7 has both sōphroneō and nephō.)

Sōphronizō: σωφρονίζω v., Tit. 2:4. Word forms: Strong’s G4994.

Sōphrōn: σώφρων adj., 1 Tim. 3:2; Tit. 1:8; 2:2, 5. Word forms: Strong’s G4998. (1 Tim. 3:2 and Tit. 2:2 have both nēphaleos and sōphrōn.)

Egkrateia: ἐγκράτεια n., Acts 24:25; Gal. 5:23; 2 Pet. 1:6. Word forms: Strong’s G1466.

Kōmos: κῶμος n., Rom. 13:13. Word forms: Strong’s G2970.

Kraipalē: κραιπάλη n., (Luke 21:34) headache from drinking. Word forms: Strong’s G2897.

Neither be “getting drunk” nor be drunk. 1 Thessalonians 5:7

“But you, brothers, are not in darkness, so that the day should overtake you like a thief. For you are all sons of light and sons of day; we are not of night nor of darkness. So then we should not sleep as the others, but we should watch and we should be sober. For those sleeping, sleep by night; and those becoming drunk, get drunk by night. But we being of the day should be sober, having put on the breastplate of faith and love, and the helmet, the hope of salvation, because God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, the One having died for us, so that whether we might watch or we might sleep, we may live together with Him. Therefore encourage one another and build up one another, just as also you are doing.” (1 Thessalonians 5:4-11 Berean Literal Bible)

See the contrasts in 1 Thessalonians 5:7! Since we should be sober: neither are we getting drunk [present participle], nor are we drunk. Neither are we falling asleep [present participle], nor are we asleep.
For those falling-asleep [present participle] – by night they are asleep; And those getting-drunk [present participle], by night they are drunk. (1 Thessalonians 5:7)
Both of their behaviours (to be getting drunk and to be drunk) are contrasted with our sober behaviour in the verses before and after!

Present participle verbs in English have the -ing suffix. The following Bible translations (which are more literal translations) keep the present participle “getting drunk” or “becoming drunk” because these closely match the present participle in the original Greek text of 1 Thessalonians 5:7:

“the ones getting-drunk are-drunk at night”
(Disciples’ Literal New Testament)

“those becoming drunk, get drunk by night”
(Berean Literal Bible)

“those becoming drunk, get drunk by night”
(Apostolic Bible Polyglot Interlinear)

“those making themselves drunk, by night are drunken”
(Young’s Literal Translation)

“those making themselves drunk, are drunken by night”
(Literal Standard Version)

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